The ANSTO Synroc approach

To achieve maximum cost savings and optimal performance, waste forms should be designed to suit the unique characteristics of the waste rather than adopting a single baseline approach.

By integrating existing, industry-proven technologies, together with tailored Synroc waste forms, significant performance improvements and life-cycle cost savings can be realised.

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Design Strategy

The tailored integration of waste form design and process technology to suit the unique characteristics of the waste stream achieves maximum benefits via:

  • Maximising waste loadings to increase cost savings
  • Optimising chemical durability
  • Reducing off-gas emissions
  • Increasing processing flexibility.

Types of waste forms

The broad process flexibility of ANSTO’s Synroc technology enables it to be deployed with a wide range of waste forms.  The preferred type of waste form is determined by the waste characteristics.

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  (Silicates, phosphates)
Multiphase ceramic
(Titanates, zirconates, phosphates & silicates)
(Durable glass plus ceramic phases)
(Alloying and encapsulation)

Process Technology

Integral to the design of the waste form is the selection of the appropriate process technology. By selecting the appropriate process technology to suit the characteristics of both the waste and waste form, significant performance enhancements can be realised.

A key consideration is to select a process that puts minimal constraints on the waste form chemistry and produces minimal secondary wastes. Any constraint imposed by the consolidation technology on the waste form chemistry will result in a reduction in waste loading and process flexibility.

Hot Isostatic Pressing

Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) technology consists of a pressure vessel containing an electrically heated furnace. Components are placed in a sealed can inside the furnace and isostatically pressed with argon gas to maximum density.

Key Advantages:

  • No off-gas emissions  - Waste is sealed and isolated from the processing equipment eliminating off-gas emissions
  • Higher waste loadings - Not limited by waste form electrical properties or viscosity
  • Very flexible technology - Applicable to a broad range of waste streams and capable of producing a wide range of waste forms

Challenging wastes

The flexibility of the ANSTO Synroc process means that it can be tailored to manage challenging and complex wastes.


Enriched uranium
Challenging HLW
Volatile wastes
  • Mo-99 wastes
  • Sources
  • Idaho calcine
  • Fuel pond sludges
  • Corroded used fuel
  • Technetium
  • Cesium
  • Iodine
  • Secondary off-gas vitrification wastes


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