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Advanced Diffraction & Scattering Beamlines (ADS-1 and ADS-2)
BRIGHT Beamlines

Advanced Diffraction & Scattering Beamlines (ADS-1 and ADS-2)

The Advanced Diffraction and Scattering beamlines (ADS-1 and ADS-2) will be optimised for a range of leading-edge diffraction and scattering techniques and will be relevant for many scientific applications including (but not limited to):

  • Studies of mineral formation and recovery under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure;
  • Non-destructive detection of cracking, fractures, textures, strains and deformations in large manufactured objects across the energy, automotive, transport, defence and aerospace sectors;
  • Maintenance and component failure studies of engineering infrastructure;
  • Studies of corrosion and cracking in alloys;
  • Characterisation and optimisation of energy storage, production and conversion systems e.g. batteries, fuel cells and thermoelectric materials

ADS-1 and ADS-2 will operate with multiple sample configurations and sample environments using high-energy monochromatic and polychromatic X-rays that will be generated using a powerful 4.5 T superconducting multi-pole wiggler source.  The optics layout will maximise the flux at the sample position and provide versatility in possible beam sizes.  Both beamlines will have state-of-the-art hybrid pixel detectors with CdTe sensors for maximum detection efficiency and sensitivity for monochromatic diffraction experiments.

ADS-1 offers white, pink and monochromatic X-ray diffraction and imaging capabilities with a monochromatic energy range of 50 – 150 keV.  When coupled with a wide variety of sample stages and environments, ADS-1 will have exceptional in situ experimental capability.

ADS-2 is capable of monochromatic diffraction experiments at three fixed X-ray energies and is suited to techniques such as powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, Total Scattering (Pair-Distribution Function analysis) and high-throughput applications with a range of sample environments.

Samples

ADS-1 will accommodate samples (powders, compacts and assemblies) and environments (pressure, temperature, environment and combinations thereof) with a range of sizes and masses (up to 300 kg).  Some sample environments will be provided allowing variable temperature experiments from 80 K – 1273 K with the possibility of flowing or static gas atmospheres in capillaries.  User-supplied cells will be possible and allow a broader range of non-ambient conditions.

Access to the ADS-1 hutch for large and bulky samples and equipment will be permitted for diffraction and imaging experiments.  ADS-2 will accommodate smaller and lighter samples (up to 50 kg) and is suited to techniques such as powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, PDF and high throughput applications.

Both beamlines will have controlled hutch environments, a range of gases available for experiments and a fume extraction system.

Techniques

The core capabilities of the ADS beamlines include the following techniques:

Monochromatic beam experiments:

  • Rapid in situ powder diffraction measurements using a range of sample stages and environments but with the benefits of increased sample penetration and high momentum transfer;
  • Total Scattering measurements (PDF) for samples with short-range ordering;
  • Single crystal measurements including diffuse scattering;
  • High pressure cells
  • Rapid texture analysis and 2D materials mapping. 
  • Imaging and tomography

White beam experiments (ADS-1 only):

  • Energy dispersive diffraction and high resolution 3D strain scanning
  • Laue diffraction
  • Imaging and tomography

Scientific Applications

The ADS beamlines will be well suited for in situ material and mineral structure characterisation for bulk samples but also for experiments where mapping is required, such as minerals and composites.  The in situ capabilities and rapid data collection regimes possible will also enable time critical kinetics studies on the second and millisecond timescales for processing and aging experiments.

Why high-energy X-rays?

Increased sample penetration using high-energy synchrotron X-rays is extremely beneficial for samples containing heavy element compositions without the typical issues associated with sample absorption.  Examples where high energy X-rays may benefit experiments include the characterisation of thermoelectric materials containing elements such as bismuth (Bi) and tellurium (Te).  Energy storage technologies will also benefit from the ADS beamlines as the increased penetration will enable devices to be tested under realistic operational conditions.  Diffraction data collected from battery and fuel cell systems with commercial electrode thicknesses and assemblies with small cell entry/exit windows will be possible.

Is diffraction and imaging possible?

The ADS-1 beamline will be able to acquire both imaging and diffraction data on the same sample which is ideal for assemblies such as heat-bearing flight surfaces and engine components for aerospace applications.  Examples include the mapping (diffraction and imaging) of thermal barrier coatings comprised of zirconia and rare-earth oxides and titanium-based engine components.  Diffraction and imaging can also be combined with a number of sample environments such as temperature, pressure and mechanical load to enable in situ measurements.  Other examples include the characterisation of minerals and materials processing experiments.

What type of samples can I use at the ADS beamlines?

Examining a range of sample sizes and masses coupled with complex sample environments will be a feature of the ADS beamlines.  ADS-1 will accommodate a broad range of sample types, sizes, masses and environments, while ADS-2 will be more limited.  The types of samples and assemblies for different experiments are broadly defined as:

  • Small:
    • Powders in capillaries, battery assemblies, multi-position plates, mapping of minerals, etc;
  • Medium:
    • Sample sizes up to 800 mm;
    • < 300 kg with numerous configurations of the standard configuration;
  • Large:
    • User-supplied apparatus with high degree of customisation;
    • Sample mounting stages and sample environments for even more experiment flexibility e.g. larger and heavier samples, custom furnaces, etc.

ADS-1 will be able to host all of the above, while ADS-2 is restricted to samples in the small category and comparable to sample configurations currently employed on the Powder Diffraction beamline.

ADS-1 will be ideal for incorporating sample environments such as in situ cyclic tensile/compression mechanical apparatus for a broad scope of strain measurements.  Experiment examples include understanding failure mechanisms relating to fatigue in aluminium and titanium based materials produced by additive manufacturing.  This can be extended to the imaging and diffraction of crack propagation in both small and large components around heat-affected areas such as welds. 

Earth science experiments, particularly those at extreme pressure and temperature requiring the use of pressure cells including diamond anvil, Paris-Edinburgh and multi-anvil cells are possible.  Earth mantle studies on high-pressure mineral polymorphs to understand earthquake formation are good examples of experiments that have been performed at overseas facilities.  The ADS beamlines can extend the capabilities of these experiments by exploring the potential use of energy-dispersive diffraction techniques.

Other techniques?

Total Scattering or pair distribution function (PDF) techniques have been used to probe short-range order and defects in amorphous materials and nanomaterials by utilising the diffuse scatter.  The technique can be combined with a range of sample environments to provide in situ capability.  The use of high-energy X-rays enables a high momentum transfer up to Qmax > 30 Å-1 in order to see sufficient atom pair separation (nearest neighbour and next-nearest neighbour interactions).  ADS-2 will dedicate a large fraction of its beam time to Total Scattering analysis and a data analysis pipeline will be available.

Technical Information and Specifications

The ADS beamlines are designed to provide high-energy X-ray diffraction and imaging capabilities for a range of scientific applications in material science, engineering and mineralogy.  A range of flux, band-pass and beam size options are available depending upon energy and optical configuration.  Due to the length of the ADS-1 beamline, the final optics hutch and experiment endstation are located in a building to be located outside the synchrotron main building.

Beamline Layout

Beamline layout ADS1 ADS2

 Technical Specifications

View Technical Specifications

Beam modes and energy range

ADS-1: white; pink; and monochromatic (50 – 150 keV)

ADS-2: Fixed monochromatic (45.3, 74.0 & 86.8 keV)

Number of endstations

2

Source

Type

Superconducting multi-pole wiggler

 

Field

4.5 T

 

Period &

4.8 cm

 

Pole pairs

40

 

K

20.2

 

Critical energy (Ec)

27.5 keV

 

Total power

45.2 kW

 

ADS-1  (Tunable bandwidth ΔE/E = 10-2 – 10-4)

Optics

 

 

 

Mask (H x V)

0.3 mrad x 0.3 mrad

 

Filter (fixed)

SiC: 1.5 mm

 

Side-bounce monochromator

At 5° take-off (for ADS-2):

Si<111>: 45.3 keV; Si<220>: 74.0 keV; Si<311>: 86.8 keV

 

Transfocator (focussing/collimating)

W pin hole: 1.4 mm (diameter)

Lens cassettes: Be (1,2,4,8,16,32); Al (32,64)

 

Filter (adjustable)

3 paddles; 4 positions per paddle

 

Double crystal Laue monochromator

2 x Si<111> crystals; χ = -35°; Bend radius: 8 m – 40 km; 

Beam size at sample (H x V)

10 mm x 10 mm (max)

20 μm x 5 μm (min)

 

ADS-2  (Fixed bandwidth ΔE/E ~3x10-3)

Optics

Vertical focussing mirror

3 stripe elliptically ground multi-layer mirror optimised for ADS-2 energies including bimorph focussing

Beam size at sample (H x V)

4 mm x 1 mm (max)

50 μm x 50 μm (min)

Beamline status

View Beamline status

Current status: The Photon Delivery System (PDS) procurement phase is underway and endstation design has begun.

Date

Status

2018 July

Project started

2019 April

Investment Case (IC) approved and endorsed by ANSTO

2019 May

Conceptual Design Report completed

2019 August

Tender submitted for superconducting multi-pole wiggler (SCMPW) insertion device

2019 December

Optical design completed

2020 January

SCMPW Contract awarded to Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

2020 June

Tender submitted for the Photon Delivery System (PDS)

2020 June

Tender submitted for the ADS radiation enclosures (hutches)

2020 June

Design for external building completed

2020 June

Tender submitted for the ADS front-end

2021

External building works begin

2021

Design for ADS-1 and ADS-2 endstations completed

2021

SCMPW delivery, installation and SAT

2021

ADS External building completed

2022-2023

Hot commissioning commences, includes expert users

*2023 Q3

First User Experiments; Beamline fully commissioned over the next 12 months

* Delay due to covid-19 considered unlikely 

Staff

Dr Phil Eliades - Project Manager

Dr Justin Kimpton – Lead Scientist

Mr Ben McMahon - Lead Engineer

Mr Matt Fenwick - Lead Controls Engineer

 

Beamline Advisory Panel

A/Prof. John Daniels (Chair) – University of NSW

Prof. Tracy Rushmer - Macquarie University

Dr Peter Lynch – Deakin University

Dr Nicholas Armstrong - Defence Science and Technology Group

Prof. Karena Chapman – Stony Brook University, USA

Dr Veijo Honkimäki – European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France

Dr Neeraj Sharma – University of New South Wales

 

Contact

as-ads@ansto.gov.au