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ADS hutches
BRIGHT Beamlines

Advanced Diffraction & Scattering Beamlines (ADS-1 and ADS-2)

The Advanced Diffraction and Scattering beamlines (ADS-1 and ADS-2) will provide high-energy X-ray diffraction and imaging capabilities for a range of scientific applications in materials science, engineering and mineralogy. 

In comparison to X-rays with lower energies, high-energy X-rays (≥ 45 keV) penetrate more deeply into matter, and are absorbed more weakly and scattered at smaller angles by the sample. This makes them particularly suited to the study of:

  • Samples inside complex sample environments for in situ or operando studies
  • Samples containing heavy elements where strong X-ray absorption is problematic
  • Internal features of bulky samples, such as defects and strain

ADS-1 and ADS-2 will offer highly flexible experiment configurations and sample environments to enable a wide variety of materials characterisation experiments using high-energy monochromatic and polychromatic X-rays. The optics layout will maximise the flux at the sample position while offering variable beam sizes and focussing. 

See below for latest updates and the planned timeline for the construction of ADS.

Techniques

The capabilities of the ADS beamlines will include:

Monochromatic beam experiments

  • Rapid in situ powder diffraction measurements using a range of sample environments (high/low temperature, high pressure, gas flow, etc.) with the benefits of increased sample penetration and high momentum transfer
  • Total scattering measurements (PDF) for samples with short-range ordering
  • Single-crystal diffraction experiments on large and/or strongly absorbing crystals, or crystals in complex sample environments with limited angular access for the beam (e.g. diamond anvil cells, furnaces)
  • Rapid texture analysis and 2D materials mapping
  • Imaging and tomography

White/pink beam experiments (ADS-1 only)

  • Energy-dispersive diffraction and high-resolution 3D strain scanning
  • Imaging and tomography
  • Laue diffraction

Endstations

The ADS high-energy X-ray beam will be split using a side-bounce monochromator to serve two independent beamline endstations, ADS-1 and ADS-2.

ADS-1 will offer white, pink and monochromatic X-ray diffraction and imaging capabilities with a monochromatic energy range of 50 – 150 keV. A multipurpose array of detectors with a highly flexible positioning system (sample–detector distances of 0.3 – 4 m) will facilitate a wide range of experiments, including those combining multiple data types (e.g. diffraction and imaging). The ADS-1 sample stage assembly will support loads of up to 300 kg and offer fast rotation speeds suitable for tomography. Larger user-supplied equipment can also be accommodated. A range of flux, band-pass and beam size options will be available depending upon energy and optical configuration. 

ADS-2 will be capable of monochromatic diffraction experiments at three fixed X-ray energies (45, 74 or 87 keV). It will be suited to techniques such as powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, total scattering (Pair-Distribution Function analysis) and high-throughput applications with a range of standard sample environments. The ADS-2 sample stage assembly will accommodate samples and environments of up to 100 kg.

Both beamlines will have controlled hutch environments, multiple standard sample environments spanning a wide temperature range, gases available for experiments, and a fume extraction system.

For further information, see ADS Technical Specifications.

Scientific Applications

The ADS beamlines will be well suited for in situ bulk structure characterisation as well as for spatial mapping of samples such as metals, ceramics, minerals and composites.  In situ capabilities and rapid data collection regimes will also enable time-critical kinetics studies on the second and millisecond timescales for processing and aging experiments.

Materials Science
  • Structural studies of strongly-absorbing inorganic materials
  • Characterisation of structure-function relationships in component materials of energy storage, production and conversion systems – batteries, fuel cells, thermoelectric materials, etc.
  • In situ structural studies of stimulus-responsive materials, sorbents, catalysts, etc.
  • Studies of local atomic structure variations using total scattering analysis or single-crystal diffuse scattering
  • Combined diffraction and imaging mapping of in situ materials processing experiments
Engineering and Manufacturing
  • Non-destructive characterisation of fractures, textures, strains and deformations in large manufactured objects across the energy, automotive, transport, defence and aerospace sectors
  • Studies of crack propagation in both small and large components around heat-affected areas such as welds
  • In situ studies of cyclic mechanical tension/compression for understanding failure mechanisms relating to fatigue in engineering infrastructure, e.g. materials produced by additive manufacturing
Earth Science
  • Studies of mineral formation and recovery under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure 
  • Combined diffraction and imaging mapping of minerals

Technical Information

Beamline Layout

ADS beamline layout

 Technical Specifications

Source

Source

Wiggler (final details TBC)

ADS-1
  •  
Beam Energy

Monochromatic: 50–150 keV (tunable)

White/pink beam also available

  Bandwidth (ΔE/E) 10-2 – 10-4 (tunable)
  Spot size at sample (H x V)

18 mm x 18 mm (max)

20 μm x 5 μm (min)

  Flux TBC

Optical components

Mask (H x V)

0.3 mrad x 0.3 mrad

 

High-pass filter

SiC: 2.0 mm

 

Transfocator (vertical focussing/collimating)

Incident aperture (H x V): 2 x 1 mm

Lens cassettes: Be (1,2,4,8,16,32); Al (32,64)

 

Attenuation filters

3 sliding paddles with 4 filters per paddle

 

Paddle 1: SiC, 2.0 - 5.0 mm

Paddle 2: Cu,  0.5 - 5.0 mm

Paddle 3: Mo,  0.5 - 2.0 mm

 

Double crystal Laue monochromator

Si<111> crystal pair with χ = -35°

Bend radius: 8 m – 40 km 

Endstation

Sample positioning stages

Standard: ≤300 kg load

Tomography: ≤50 kg load, ≤10 Hz rotation

Single crystal: ≤2 kg load, 2-circle (fixed kappa)

  Detectors

1. Primary monochromatic diffraction detector: EIGER2 XE CdTe 9M

  • Active area: 233 x 245 mm2
  • Pixel count: 3108 x 3262 (10.1 megapixels)
  • Pixel pitch: 75 μm
  • Max. frame rate: 500 Hz
  • Max. count rate: 107 photons/s/pixel

2. Auxiliary far-field diffraction detector

  • details TBC

3. Energy-dispersive diffraction detector: Brookhaven National Laboratory Ge detector

  • Sensor arrangement: 192-element linear array
  • Pixel pitch: 250 μm

4. Imaging detector: Optique Peter White Beam triple-objective microscope with PCO.edge 5.5 camera

  • Pixel count: 2560 x 2160 (5.5 megapixels)
  • Pixel pitch: 6.5 μm
  • Max. frame rate: 100 Hz
  • Objective settings:
    • Objective

      1X 2X HR5X
      Total magnification 1X 1.8X 4.5X
      Diagonal FOV (mm) 21.8 12.1 4.8
      Objective resolution
      limit @550 nm (μm)
      9.6 6.1 1.6
ADS-2

Beam

Energy

Monochromatic: 45.3, 74.0 or 86.8 keV (fixed)

 

  Bandwidth (ΔE/E) ~3 x 10-3
  Spot size at sample (H x V)

4 mm x 1 mm (max)

10 μm x 10 μm (min)

  Flux TBC
Optical components Side-bounce monochromator

Si <111>, <220>, <311>

Take-off angle: 5°

  Vertical focussing mirror 3 stripe multi-layer mirror with variable focus via mechanical benders  
Endstation Sample positioning stage

Standard: ≤100 kg load

Single crystal: ≤2 kg load, 2-circle (fixed kappa)

  Detector

Primary monochromatic diffraction detector: PILATUS3 X CdTe 2M

  • Active area: 254 x 289 mm2
  • Pixel count: 1475 x 1679 (2.5 megapixels)
  • Pixel pitch: 172 μm
  • Max. frame rate: 250 Hz
  • Max. count rate: 107 photons/s/pixel

 

Beamline construction timeline

Current status: The photon delivery system and major endstation components are in the final stages of design. The extension building and hutches are under construction.

Date

Milestone

2018 July

Project started

2019 April

Investment Case approved and endorsed by ANSTO

2019 May

Conceptual Design Report completed

2020 September

Beamline hutch contract awarded to Innospec Prüfsystem GmbH

2020 November

Beamline optics contract awarded to Axilon AG

2020 December

Front end (storage ring interface) contract awarded to FMB Berlin (FMB Feinwerk- und Messtechnik GmbH)

2021 August ADS-1 robotic detector positioning gantry system contract awarded to CNC Design Pty Ltd

2021 September

ADS-1 sample positioning system contract awarded to Square One Systems Design Inc.

2021 October External building works commenced

2022 Q1

Conceptual design for main endstation components completed

2022 February Construction of internal hutches commenced
2022 May Front end delivered and installed
2022 October Construction of external hutches completed
2022 Q4 External building works completed

2022 Q4 - 2023 Q1

ADS-1 major endstation components installed
2023 Q2 Interim wiggler installed in storage ring

2023 Q3

Beamline optical system delivered and installed

2023 Q4

Hot commissioning commences, includes expert users

2024 Q2

First user experiments; beamlines fully commissioned over the next 12 months

 

Latest updates

  • 25/10/2022 Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) has been contracted to supply a 192-element Ge detector for the ADS project. This detector enables ADS-1 to be the first beamline at the Australian Synchrotron to support energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (ED-XRD) experiments, which can be used for depth-resolved structural studies of bulk samples and in situ functioning devices.


ADS gantry beams installation
  • 22/10/2022 The ADS-1 detector positioning gantry system has been delivered to site. A major operation was required to move the long Z-axis gantry beams into the 1C hutch, which is only slightly longer than the beams themselves. Thanks to the various teams involved for co-operating to get the job done!


PSI wiggler for ADS
The interim wiggler at the Swiss Light Source, prior to packing. (Photo: PSI; used with permission)
  • 08/09/2022 – The Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) has removed a decommissioned permanent-magnet wiggler from their storage ring and packaged it for transport to Australia. This device will serve as a temporary X-ray source for ADS until a superconducting wiggler can be procured and installed. We’re grateful to PSI for supplying this device so that the ADS beamlines can be tested and commissioned in the interim period. More information about the wiggler can be found on PSI's website.


ADS imaging detector
  • 23/08/2022 The ADS-1 imaging detector has been ordered. The device is composed of two parts: a PCO.edge 5.5 scientific grade camera and a custom Optique Peter White-beam triple-objective microscope system. This state-of-the-art detector will enable a range of imaging experiments, including radiography and computed tomography at magnifications of 1X, 2X or 5X, and can also be used in combination with our diffraction detectors to give researchers a "full picture” of their materials.


ADS hutch roof
  • 01/08/2022 Thanks to the team of contractors who have spent months decorating our 1A and 2A hutches with brightly-coloured cables, the installation of electrical services in the internal hutches is nearing completion.


ADS external hutch construction
  • 25/07/2022 – Construction is underway on the 1B and 1C hutches in the extension building. These hutches will house the downstream optics and endstation of the ADS-1 beamline.

Older updates (2022)
Dectris detectors
  • 30/06/2022 – The ADS team is very pleased to announce that DECTRIS AG has been contracted to supply the primary monochromatic diffraction detectors for both ADS endstations. A state-of-the-art EIGER2 XE CdTe 9M area detector will be installed in ADS-1, while ADS-2 will receive a slightly larger PILATUS3 X CdTe 2M. These "workhorse" detectors will deliver excellent performance and complementary capabilities for a variety of diffraction experiments across the ADS beamlines.  

ADS PDS components
  • 10/06/2022 – After many months of design and review, the last component in the ADS photon delivery system (PDS) was signed off, marking the end of the Final Design Review stage for this major segment of the beamline project. The PDS comprises the entire optical system delivering beam from the front end to the ADS-1 and ADS-2 endstations. Axilon can now start producing the many parts and pieces of the PDS in preparation for delivery to ANSTO in mid-2023.


  • 27/05/2022 – The extension building floor has been precision levelled to within 2 mm of its design height and flatness in order to support the ADS-1 optical and endstation hutches.


ADS front end installed in storage ring
  • 13/05/2022 – The ADS front end is assembled and aligned in the storage ring tunnel. This is the first segment of the beamline to be installed, and an exciting milestone for the project! 


ADS external hutch panel crates
  • 09/05/2022 The rear car park is starting to fill up again with ADS hutch panels… This time it’s the first consignment of panels for the external hutches 1B and 1C. Two more shipments are due to arrive in June and July.


  • 20/04/2022 The internal hutches successfully completed two days of radiation shielding integrity testing. They are now ready for contractors to start installing electrical services in the first week of May.


ADS front end being unpacked
  • 11/04/2022 The front end arrived safely and is scheduled to be installed inside the storage ring tunnel during the May shutdown.


ADS internal hutches under construction
Hutch 1A (upstream optics for ADS-1&2)
ADS hutch 2A under construction
Hutch 2A (ADS-2 endstation)
ADS hutches 1A and 2A
Two down - two to go!
  • 29/03/2022  Heavy construction work for hutches 1A and 2A is finished and all major panels and doors are now in place. Detailing work is continuing to prepare the hutches for the installation of electrical and mechanical services.


ADS front end at FMB test lab
The ADS front end during factory acceptance testing in Germany. Components (left to right) include Bremsstrahlung shutter and collimator, double photon shutters, diamond filter and fixed-aperture mask. (Photo: FMB Berlin, used with permission)
  • 25/03/2022 The ADS Front End (storage ring interface) completed factory acceptance testing at FMB Berlin’s manufacturing facility, with ANSTO personnel attending virtually to witness some tests. The FE will now be partly disassembled, packed into crates and flown to Australia for site delivery in 2-3 weeks’ time.


ADS building Phase 1 complete
  • 11/03/2022 Phase 1 of the extension building construction is now complete. One external wall was deliberately left open to allow large hutch panels to be brought through into the main building for installation. The extension building will be completed during construction phase 2, which will start in July after the remaining hutches (1B and 1C) have been installed. 


ADS-2 sample and detector tables
  • 01/03/2022 After considering various alternatives, the beamline team agreed on a conceptual design for the ADS-2 sample and detector positioning systems. The complementary motorised tables will be designed in-house and offer maximum flexibility for positioning components in the ADS-2 endstation.


  • 22/02/2022 Metrology report received for the for the ADS-2 vertical focusing mirror (VFM) silicon substrate (manufactured by ZEISS). The 1000 x 40 mm reflective surface passed its tests and is now ready to be coated with the multilayer stripes that will enable it to focus the ADS-2 beam in the endstation hutch.


ADS hutch construction
  •  21/02/2022 The ADS hutches are officially under construction! The "internal" hutches (located inside the main synchrotron building) will be assembled over the next six weeks. Meanwhile, the first shipment of panels for the "external" hutches (in the extension building) has left Germany and is expected to arrive in May.


ADS building frame
  • 16/02/2022 The ADS-1 extension building is rapidly taking shape, with the roof due to be completed by next week and external wall cladding to follow.


G16 laboratory demolition
  • 09/02/2022 The former Extreme Conditions Laboratory has been demolished in preparation for the external wall breakthrough to access the new ADS-1 extension building.


ADS-1 sample table
ADS-1 sample table in Tomography mode (fast upper rotation stage in place).
Image provided by Square One Systems Design, Inc.
  • 21/01/2022 The ADS-1 sample table reached the Final Design Review milestone. Representatives from Square One attended the FDR meeting in person while visiting Australia from the USA. At the post-meeting lunch, all agreed that this was much more enjoyable than meeting online!

Older Updates (2021)

 

ADS building site with slab
  • 23/12/2021 Concrete pouring finished for the main technical slab and external access areas - just in time to let them cure over Christmas and New Year.


ADS first cement pour
  • 16/12/2021 First concrete poured on the ADS-1 building extension site.


  • 10/12/2021 The ADS-1 sample table underwent Preliminary Design Review. The table is based on a Tri-Sphere design and incorporates multiple motion axes to align and rotate samples weighing up to 300 kg in the ADS-1 beam.


ADS construction Dec '21
  • 03/12/2021 – Between the summer storms, construction continues...


ADS-1 gantry drawing
  • 25/11/2021 The ADS-1 detector positioning gantry system reached the Final Design Review major milestone. The gantry is currently scheduled for installation in late 2022, after the external ADS-1 hutches have been built and provisioned.


ADS hutch panels
  • 10/11/2021 – First batch of hutch panels delivered. Having completed their long sea journey from Germany, the panels will be stored onsite until installation in early 2022.


ADS extension building construction site
  • 27/10/2021 – Excavation has begun on the ADS-1 extension building site! The ADS Science Team will enjoy gallery views from their office windows during construction of the extension building, which will house the ADS-1 beamline endstation and user cabin.


  • 14/10/2021 – The robotic detector positioning system for ADS-1 reached the Preliminary Design Review milestone. This Cartesian gantry system has two independent platforms that will enable the beamline's four detectors to be positioned within a large spatial envelope inside the ADS-1 hutch.


  • 14/09/2021 – Received word that the first containers of internal hutch panels (for the first optics hutch and ADS-2 endstation) have been dispatched from Innospec’s factory in Germany.


Photo of ADS-2 slab extension before and after concrete pour
  • 28/05/2021 – ADS-2 Technical floor slab extension poured. This section of the slab will support the ADS-2 endstation hutch.


Hole cored in storage ring wall for ADS beam pipe
  • 06/05/2021 – Coring complete for the ADS beam pipe hole in the storage ring wall. An exciting milestone for the team as it represents the first piece of tangible work on the beamline construction project!

Staff

Mr Gonzalo Conesa-Zamora - Project Manager

Dr Justin Kimpton – Lead Scientist

Dr Josie Auckett Beamline Scientist

Mr Sina Porsa – Lead Engineer

Mr Ross Hogan – Controls Engineer

Mrs Nga Hutchinson – PLC Safety Engineer

 

Beamline Advisory Panel

A/Prof. John Daniels (Chair) – University of NSW

Prof. Tracy Rushmer - Macquarie University

Dr Peter Lynch – Deakin University

Dr Nicholas Armstrong - Defence Science and Technology Group

Prof. Karena Chapman – Stony Brook University, USA

Dr Veijo Honkimäki – European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France

Dr Neeraj Sharma – University of New South Wales

Prof. Michael Preuss – Monash University

 

Contact

as-ads@ansto.gov.au