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Advanced Diffraction & Scattering Beamlines (ADS-1 and ADS-2)
BRIGHT Beamlines

Advanced Diffraction & Scattering Beamlines (ADS-1 and ADS-2)

The Advanced Diffraction and Scattering beamlines (ADS-1 and ADS-2) will provide high-energy X-ray diffraction and imaging capabilities for a range of scientific applications in materials science, engineering and mineralogy. 

In comparison to X-rays with lower energies, high-energy X-rays (≥ 50 keV) penetrate more deeply into matter, and are absorbed more weakly and scattered at smaller angles by the sample. This makes them particularly suited to the study of:

  • Samples inside complex sample environments for in situ or operando studies
  • Samples containing heavy elements where strong X-ray absorption is problematic
  • Internal features of bulky samples, such as defects and strain

ADS-1 and ADS-2 will offer highly flexible experiment configurations and sample environments to enable a wide variety of materials characterisation experiments using high-energy monochromatic and polychromatic X-rays. The optics layout will maximise the flux at the sample position while offering variable beam sizes and focussing. 

See below for latest updates and the planned timeline for the construction of ADS.

Techniques

The capabilities of the ADS beamlines will include:

Monochromatic beam experiments

  • Rapid in situ powder diffraction measurements using a range of sample environments (high/low temperature, high pressure, gas flow, etc.) with the benefits of increased sample penetration and high momentum transfer
  • Total scattering measurements (PDF) for samples with short-range ordering
  • Single-crystal diffraction experiments on large and/or strongly absorbing crystals, or crystals in complex sample environments with limited angular access for the beam (e.g. diamond anvil cells, furnaces)
  • Rapid texture analysis and 2D materials mapping
  • Imaging and tomography

White/pink beam experiments (ADS-1 only)

  • Energy-dispersive diffraction and high-resolution 3D strain scanning
  • Imaging and tomography
  • Laue diffraction

Endstations

The ADS high-energy X-ray beam will be generated using a powerful 4.5 T superconducting multi-pole wiggler source. This beam will be split using a side-bounce monochromator to serve two independent beamline endstations, ADS-1 and ADS-2.

ADS-1 will offer white, pink and monochromatic X-ray diffraction and imaging capabilities with a monochromatic energy range of 50 – 150 keV. A multipurpose array of detectors with a highly flexible positioning system (sample–detector distances of 0.3 – 4 m) will facilitate a wide range of experiments, including those combining multiple data types (e.g. diffraction and imaging). The ADS-1 sample stage assembly will support loads of up to 300 kg and offer fast rotation speeds suitable for tomography. Larger user-supplied equipment can also be accommodated. A range of flux, band-pass and beam size options will be available depending upon energy and optical configuration. 

ADS-2 will be capable of monochromatic diffraction experiments at three fixed X-ray energies (45, 74 or 87 keV). It will be suited to techniques such as powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, total scattering (Pair-Distribution Function analysis) and high-throughput applications with a range of standard sample environments. The ADS-2 sample stage assembly will accommodate samples and environments of up to 100 kg.

Both beamlines will have controlled hutch environments, multiple standard sample environments spanning a wide temperature range, gases available for experiments, and a fume extraction system.

For further information, see ADS Technical Specifications.

Scientific Applications

The ADS beamlines will be well suited for in situ bulk structure characterisation as well as for spatial mapping of samples such as metals, ceramics, minerals and composites.  In situ capabilities and rapid data collection regimes will also enable time-critical kinetics studies on the second and millisecond timescales for processing and aging experiments.

Materials Science
  • Structural studies of strongly-absorbing inorganic materials
  • Characterisation of structure-function relationships in component materials of energy storage, production and conversion systems – batteries, fuel cells, thermoelectric materials, etc.
  • In situ structural studies of stimulus-responsive materials, sorbents, catalysts, etc.
  • Studies of local atomic structure variations using total scattering analysis or single-crystal diffuse scattering
  • Combined diffraction and imaging mapping of in situ materials processing experiments
Engineering and Manufacturing
  • Non-destructive characterisation of fractures, textures, strains and deformations in large manufactured objects across the energy, automotive, transport, defence and aerospace sectors
  • Studies of crack propagation in both small and large components around heat-affected areas such as welds
  • In situ studies of cyclic mechanical tension/compression for understanding failure mechanisms relating to fatigue in engineering infrastructure, e.g. materials produced by additive manufacturing
Earth Science
  • Studies of mineral formation and recovery under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure 
  • Combined diffraction and imaging mapping of minerals

Technical Information

Beamline Layout

Image of ADS beamline layout

 Technical Specifications

Source

Source

Type

Superconducting multi-pole wiggler

 

Field

4.5 T

 

Period

4.8 cm

 

Pole pairs

40

 

K

20.2

 

Critical energy (Ec)

27.5 keV

 

Total power

45.2 kW

ADS-1
Beam Energy

Monochromatic: 50–150 keV (tunable)

White/pink beam also available

  Bandwidth (ΔE/E) 10-2 – 10-4 (tunable)
  Spot size at sample (H x V)

18 mm x 18 mm (max)

20 μm x 5 μm (min)

  Flux TBC (spot size dependent)

Optical components

Mask (H x V)

0.3 mrad x 0.3 mrad

 

High-pass filter

SiC: 2.0 mm

 

Transfocator (horizontal focussing/collimating)

Incident aperture (H x V): 2 x 1 mm

Lens cassettes: Be (1,2,4,8,16,32); Al (32,64)

 

Attenuation filters

Various (3 sliding paddles; 4 positions per paddle)

 

Double crystal Laue monochromator

Si<111> crystal pair with χ = -35°

Bend radius: 8 m – 40 km 

Endstation

Sample positioning stages

  • Standard: ≤300 kg load
  • Tomography: ≤50 kg load, ≤10 Hz rotation
  • Single crystal: ≤2 kg load, 2-circle (fixed kappa)
  Detectors
  • Monochromatic diffraction (area detector) x2
  • Energy-dispersive diffraction
  • Imaging
ADS-2

Beam

Energy

Monochromatic: 45.3, 74.0 or 86.8 keV (fixed)

 

  Bandwidth (ΔE/E) ~3 x 10-3
  Spot size at sample (H x V)

4 mm x 1 mm (max)

10 μm x 10 μm (min)

  Flux TBC (spot size dependent)
Optical components Side-bounce monochromator

Si <111>, <220>, <311>

Take-off angle: 5°

  Vertical focussing mirror 3 stripe multi-layer mirror with variable focus via mechanical benders  
Endstation Sample positioning stage
  • Standard: ≤100 kg load
  • Single crystal: ≤2 kg load, 2-circle (fixed kappa)
  Detector
  • Monochromatic diffraction (area detector)

 

Beamline construction timeline

Current status: The hutch and optics procurement phases are complete and endstation design is underway.

Date

Milestone

2018 July

Project started

2019 April

Investment Case approved and endorsed by ANSTO

2019 May

Conceptual Design Report completed

2020 January

Superconducting multi-pole wiggler (SCMPW) insertion device contract awarded to Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

2020 September

Beamline hutch contract awarded to Innospec Prüfsystem GmbH

2020 November

Beamline optics contract awarded to Axilon AG

2020 December

Front end (storage ring interface) contract awarded to FMB Berlin (FMB Feinwerk- und Messtechnik GmbH)

2021 August ADS-1 robotic detector positioning gantry system contract awarded to CNC Design Pty Ltd

2021 September

External building works begin

2021 Q4

Design for main endstation components completed

2021 Q4 Internal hutches installed
2022 January Front end delivered and installed
2022 Q1 External hutches installed
2022 Q2 External building works completed
2022 Q2 ADS-1 detector positioning gantry system installed

2022 Q3

SCMPW delivered and installed

2022 Q4

Beamline optical system delivered and installed

2023 Q2

Hot commissioning commences, includes expert users

2023 Q3

First user experiments; beamlines fully commissioned over the next 12 months

 

Latest updates

  • 28/05/2021 – ADS-2 Technical floor slab extension poured. This section of the slab will support the ADS-2 endstation hutch.

Photo of ADS-2 slab extension before and after concrete pour

  •  06/05/2021 – Coring complete for the ADS beam pipe hole in the storage ring wall. An exciting milestone for the team as it represents the first piece of tangible work on the beamline construction project!

Hole cored in storage ring wall for ADS beam pipe

Staff

Mr Gonzalo Conesa-Zamora - Project Manager

Dr Justin Kimpton – Lead Scientist

Dr Renata Lippi Beamline Scientist

Dr Josie Auckett Beamline Scientist

Mr Ben McMahon – Lead Engineer

Mr Ross Hogan – Controls Engineer

Mr Matt Fenwick – PLC Safety Engineer

 

Beamline Advisory Panel

A/Prof. John Daniels (Chair) – University of NSW

Prof. Tracy Rushmer - Macquarie University

Dr Peter Lynch – Deakin University

Dr Nicholas Armstrong - Defence Science and Technology Group

Prof. Karena Chapman – Stony Brook University, USA

Dr Veijo Honkimäki – European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France

Dr Neeraj Sharma – University of New South Wales

Prof. Michael Preuss – Monash University

 

Contact

as-ads@ansto.gov.au